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General Motor Dysfunctions

Confuses right/left after age seven.“Mirror” reading and writing beyond first grade, reversals.Poor balance.Skipping and hopping delays/skills problems.Lack of finger dexterity; awkward pen grip.History of delayed motor milestones.Short attention span in motor-dominant tasks.Difficulty in perceiving self in time and space. (Bumps into things, poor sense of time.)Slow in finishing work – does not complete papers.

Visual-Motor Dysfunctions

Drawing and/or writing skills not up to standard.Slow writing, spacing, and alignment problems.Difficulty with puzzles.Arithmetic concepts poor.Difficulty writing or reading sight words (often: does well with polysyllables).Figure-ground discrimination impaired, gets lost in details.Short attention in visually-predominant tasks.Visual memory – not be able to revisualize objects, words, letters, or concepts.Reverses or miscalls numbers or words, skips words or lines in reading or writing.Learns best auditorally.Attempts to spell phonetically.Graph and chart problems.Difficulty copying from the blackboard onto paper.

Auditory-Motor Dysfunctions

Cannot consistently, accurately echo words and syllables.Difficulty blending sounds.Frequent speech irregularities (not articulation problems).Cannot identify what he/she hears; poor vocabulary.Difficulty following directions or requests.Difficulty relating experiences in normal sequence of expression: reversals.

 Short attention span in auditorally-predominant tasks.Figure-ground discrimination impaired (easily distracted by background sounds).Short memory for auditory information.History of delayed speech, speech problems, or chronic ear problems (ages 1-6).Learns best visually.Below average spelling.Difficulty choosing the right words when expressing self.

Integrative Abilities Dysfunctioning

Phoneme/grapheme equivalency difficulties in reading.A “hands on” learner – learns best tactually.Rhythmical movement difficulties.Difficulties in concept formation and applica­tions to aid problem solving.Thinking is concrete; abstract ideas and reasoning difficult.Perseveration – works compulsively beyond the point where answers have been attained.Organizational skills problems.Time management problems.Overloads quickly with multiple demands.

Visual Function Difficulties – Developmental vision referral indicated:

Slow reading rate.Comprehension problems.Confuses visually similar words.Skips words or lines of printed material.Difficulty reading for long periods.Difficulty copying from the board or a book to a page.Complains of print “moving” and/or colors between words.Confuses operational signs in math.Difficulty sustaining attention on seatwork.Avoids nearwork.Visual: headaches, doubling, blurring.Tilts head, blocks/closes one eye, rubs/touches eyes often.


Areas with fewer symptoms indicate the best avenues to use when teaching this child. Areas with more than 5 checks indicate the need for remediation. A professional diagnos­tic evaluation may be recommended to the parent for the specific determination of type and depth of perceptual difficulties.

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